Bharat Joshi is a co-founder of VuNet Systems ( In the past, he worked as a Product Technical Architect in Infosys Ltd. Bharat has more than 15 years of industry experience in design and development of router software including various networking protocols. Bharat has contributed in several international forums including IETF, IEEE and SANOG. He is the author of multiple IETF standards related to DHCP and PIM-SM. He maintains a personal blog Bite-The-Bytes (

PIM Assert mechanism : Why and how

Protocol Independent Multicast (PIM) – Sparse mode (PIM-SM) is a multicast routing protocol. PIM-SM is used when receivers are sparsely populated. PIM-SM uses explicit-join mechanism. PIM-SM can work on point-to-point link and ethernet LANs.   Why PIM Assert mechanism is required: We will use the network configuration shown in figure-1 …

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Any Source Multicast and Source Specific Multicast


Applications/Servers use IP multicast to send their contents in IP packets to a group of interested clients. These clients indicate their wish to receive such traffic explicitly by sending an IGMP (Internet Group Management Protocol) join message. In early years of IP multicast deployment, receivers and senders did not know …

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